Of Wuzw (Ablution):
Ya Aiey-yuhal Lazeena Aamanoo Izaa Qumtum llas-salauti Faghsiloo Wujoohakum Wa Aiediyakum Ilal Maraafiqi Wamsahoo Biru'oosikam Wa Arjulakum Ilal Ka'baien. 5/6
("O, those who have believed! When you rise up for Namaaz, you should wash your faces and your hands upto the elbows and do Masah (passing wet fingers of the hands) of your heads and wash your feet upto the ankles.") (Without ablution Namaaz becomes void. Ablution is essential for Namaaz.)
How to do ablution:
First of all one should define the intention (neey-yat) to purify himself and to seek reward. Then he should recite Bismil Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem (Al-Laah, in whose name I begin, is the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful), and wash both his hands upto the wrists thrice. Then, he should wash his mouth thrice and also brush his teeth with a miswaak (a softened and shortened branch of a tree used for cleansing the teeth). Then, he should sniff water into the nostrils thrice and cleanse the nose with the left hand. Then he should wash his face thrice in such a manner that no spot, from the forelock upto under the chin and the lobes of the two ears, remains dry. If one keeps a beard, he should do Khilaal (pass his wet fingers) through it. Then, wash both his hands upto, and including, the elbows, first the right hand and then the left hand. Then, wetting his hands with fresh water, he should do the Masah of his entire head once, in such a way that he passes three fingers of both his hands over the nape of the neck and, then, after passing them over the nape of the neck, bring them back. Then, do the Masah of the inside of his ears with the index finger and of the outside surface of the ears with the inside of the thumb and of the neck with the back of the fingers. Then, wash the two feet thrice, first the rights foot upto the ankle with his left hand and with passing his wet hand between the toes.
Of the procedure laid down above, some are (fard) obligatory for ablution, some are Sunnat (Prophetic traditions) and some are mustahab (desirable). They are given below.
Obligatory (fard) acts of ablution:
Ablution is not performed without doing these things, and they are four: (1) washing the face; (2) washing both hands upto, and including, the elbows; (3) doing Masah of a quarter of the head; (4) washing both feet, including the ankles.
Sunnat (Prophetic traditions) acts of ablution:
To define the intention; to begin by reciting Bismil Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem (Al-Laah, in whose name I begin, is the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful); to wash both hands upto the wrists; to wash the mouth; to do miswaak; to sniff water into the nostrils; to do Khilaal (pass wet fingers) of the beard; to do Masah of the entire head; to do Masah of the ears; to do ablution in such a manner that the other limbs do not, in the meanwhile, get dried; to keep up the sequence; to wash three times every limb which has to be washed.
Things desirable (mustahab) for ablution:
To do Masah of the nape of the neck; to face towards the Qiblah (Ka'bah); to sit at a clean and elevated place; to pass the hands over the limbs when pouring water over them; not to unnecessarily seek the help of others; not to indulge in worldly talks; to drink a little of the leftover water in a standing position; to recite the Kalimah Shahaadat and to recite the following supplication:
Al-Laahum maj'alnee Minat taw-waabeena Waj'alnee Minal Muta tah-hireena Waj'alnee Min 'Ibaadikas Saaliheen.
("O Al-Laah! Make me of those who have repented and make me of those who are purified and of those who are Your virtuous bondsmen".)
Things which nullify ablution:
Anything oozing out from where stool or urine comes out; blood, puss and any purulent discharge flowing onto the body; a mouthful of the vomit; sleeping while lying or in a sitting position with the back leaning against something; loud laughter while saying Namaaz; fainting for one reason or another; water flowing from infected eyes.
Some requisite rules:
If flatulence occurs during ablution or some such thing takes place by which ablution is nullified then it is essential to do ablution afresh. Whatever had been washed before has now become unwashed. To touch the Holy Qur'aan without ablution is prohibited. It is Sunnat for a person who has become polluted to do ablution before going to sleep or eating something. Ablution is not nullified if blood or puss comes out but does not flow. If blood or puss keeps flowing all the time from somebody's wound or drops of urine keep coming out or if flatulence occurs all the time, then one should do ablution before every Namaaz and his Namaaz will be deemed to be valid as he has now become incapacitated. This ablution will last till the ultimate time for Namaaz.
OF BATH (Ghusl):
Wa In kuntum Junuban Fat tah-haroo. 5/6
("If you are in need of taking a bath, you should "take a bath and" clean yourself thoroughly.")
The accepted mode of taking bath:
First, wash both hands upto the wrists; then, wash your private parts and remove all filth wherever it may be; then, do ablution; and, after ablution, pour water thrice on the right shoulder and then on the left shoulder; then, pour water on the head and over the whole body and rub it thrice; and should not talk to anybody.
There are three (fard) obligatory acts, which go with a bath. These are:
Situations where bath is (fard) obligatory:
on completion of the end of the flow of blood after childbirth (Nifaas).
Baths that are masnoon (acts exemplified by the holy Prophet):
Before Jum'ah congregational Namaaz and before standing for Namaaz on the two 'Leeds and while putting on the Ihraam (pilgrim's garb), and on the Day of Arafaat (9th Zil-Hijjah).
Baths that are desirable (mustahab):
During the days of staying in Arafaat and in Muzdalifah (in Makkah); before presenting oneself at the Holy Ka'bah and the holy shrine of the holy Prophet (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam); and on the Shab-I- Bara'at and the Shab-I-Qadr, etc.
Some requisite rules:
If pollution occurs on a night during Ramadaan, it is better to take a bath before dawn in order that every part of fasting is free of pollution. If bath is not taken, then also fasting is not vitiated. It is forbidden (haraam) for a polluted person to enter a mosque, to circumambulate, to touch or recite the Holy Qur'aan. There is no harm if a polluted person recites Durood Shareef or makes a supplication, but it is better for him to do ablution or wash his mouth before thus reciting. It is permitted for a polluted person to respond to the Azaan. A person who is polluted should not delay talking a bath, for the Angels of mercy do not enter the house of a person for whom it is necessary to take a bath. In case of non-availability of water, one should do dry ablution (tayam-mum).
OF TAYAM-MOM (Dry Ablution):
Falam Tajidoo Maaan Fa tayam mamoo Sa'eedan Taiey iban Famsahoo Bi Wujoohikuht Wa Aiedeekum. 4/43
"When you do not find water, you should do tayam-mum with clean earth, and do Masah of your face and your hands."
If water is not available or there is an apprehension of one's illness aggravating because of ablution or bath, then the command is to do instead of doing ablution or taking a bath. There is the same procedure for doing tayam-mum for ablution and for taking a bath. The only difference is in the intent, so that the tayam-mum for bath and the tayam-mum for ablution, as the case may be, is clearly spelt out.
Procedure of tayam-mum:
One should define the intent that he is doing tayam-mum for purifying himself and for saying Namaaz: Then, with out stretched fingers of his hands he should strike a clod of pure earth or anything which is of the genre of the earth and then do masah once of the entire face without leaving out any spot. Then, strike again and do masah of his hands from the nails upto the elbows in such a manner that no spot is left out.
There are three (fard) obligatory acts of tayam-mum:
The Sunnat (acts exemplified by the holy Prophet) acts of tayam-mum:
To do khilaal (pass fingers) of the beard and of the fingers.
If one is wearing rings, bangles etc., then these should be either altogether removed or temporarily put aside, for it is obligatory to wipe with your hand the spot beneath them. A thing is of the genre of the earth if it does not burn to ashes, nor does it melt, nor does it soften, and to do tayam-mum with it is lawful even though there be no dust on it. Also lawful is to do tayam-mum over a dusty piece of clean cloth, which may give out dust when it is struck by hand.
Things, which nullify ablution or bath also vitiate tayam-mum. Tayam-mum also becomes void in the event of water becoming available.