Of Namaaz (Prayer)
Of the obligations imposed on Musalmaans by the Almighty Al-Laah, the greatest one is that of Namaaz. Those who have perused the Qur'aan and the Hadeeth know how important and essential Namaaz is and how severe and horrible the end of those who give it up:
Some Divine Commands in this respect:
("It (the Qur'aan) is an admonition for those good doers who testify to the unseen and who establish Namaaz and who spend from the provision given to them by Us.")
("Guard all your Namaaz, specially the middle one ('Asr),and stand before Al-Laah in awe.")
Rijaalul-Laa Tulheehim Tijaaratun-Wa Laa Baie 'un 'An Zikril-Laahi Wa Iqaamis-Salaati Wa Ieetaa'izZakaati Yakhaafoona Yauman Tataqal-labu Feehil Quloobu Wal Absaar. (24/37)
("The virtuous among humans are those who are not detracted from the remembrance of Al-Laah and from establishing Namaaz and from giving Zakaat because of their trading and because of their buying and selling, they fear the Day of Judgement, on which Day many a heart and many an eye will become topsy-turvy.")
Fawaielul-Lil Musal-leenal Lazeena Hum 'An Salaatihim Saahoon(107/5)
("Woe to those who say Namaaz but are unaware of the importance of Namaaz, that is, say it at wrong times or say it some times or do not say it some times.")
Fakhalafa Minm Ba'di Khal fihim Khalfun Adaa'us Sala-ata Wat taba'ush Shaha waati Fasaufa Yalqauna Ghaiey yaa. (19/59)
("After them came some wicked people who wasted their Namaaz and followed their own low desires. So they will soon encounter Ghaiey".)
"Ghaiey" is a pit in the nether part of Hell where the puss of the inmates of Hell will be collected.
Fee Jan-naatin-y Yatasaa' aloona 'Anil Mujrimeena Ma Salakakum Fee Saqar, Qaaloo Lam Naku Minal Musal leena Wal Lam Naku Nut 'imul Mi skeen. (74/43)
("In Paradise, the inmates of that place will ask the guilty as to what were the sins that had sent them to Hell? And they will say, it was so because we did not say Namaaz and did not feed the destitute.")
Duaa-I-Khaleel (Supplication) of Hazrat Ibraaheem ('Alaihis Salaam)
Rab-bij'alnee Muqeemas- Salaati Wa Min Zur-yatee Rab-banaa Wa-ta Qab-bal Du'aa. (14/40)
("O my Rabb! Make my progeny and me the establisher of Namaaz. O our Rabb! Accept my supplication.")
The first Wahy (Revelation) which came to Hazrat Moosa ('Alaihis Salaam):
In-na nee Anal Laahu Laa Ilaaha Il la Ana Fa 'bud nee Wa Aqimis Salaata Lizikree. (20/14)
("I am, indeed, Al-Laah. There is no deity but I. so, worship me and establish Namaaz for My remembrance.")
Hazrat 'Ieesa's words (while still in his mother's lap)
In-nee 'Abdul Laah Aataa niyal Kitaaba Waja'alanee Nabeey-yaa, Waja'alanee Mubaarakan Aiena Maa Kuntu Wa Ausaanee Bis-Salaati Waz-Zakaati Maa Dumtu Haiey-yaa. (19/31)
("I am Al-Laah's bondsman and it is He who has given me the Book and made me a Prophet, and blessed me wherever I am, and has admonished me to say Namaaz and to give Zakaat so long as I live.")
Hazrat Luqmaan's advice to his son:
. Yaa Bunaiey-ya Aqimis ata Wa~mur Bil Ma'roofi Wan ha 'Anil Munkar. (31/17)
("O my son! Keep up Namaaz and order (people) to do good and forbid (them) from being wicked.")
The glories of the men of faith:
. Wal Mu'minoona Wal Mu 'minaatu Ba'duhum Auliyaa'u Ba'd, Ya'muroona Bil Ma'roofi Wa Yanhauna Anil Munkari Wa Yuqeemoo Salaata Wa yoo'toonaz Zakaata Wa yutee'oonal Laaha Wa Rasoolahu 'Ulaa 'ika Sayarhamu humul Laah, In Laaha 'Azeezum Hakeem. (9/71)
('`Mu'min male and Mu'min female are helpful to each other, order good and forbid evil and establish Namaaz and pay Zakaat and are obedient to Al-Laah and His Prophet. These are they on whom Al-Laah will show His mercy. Surely, Al-Laah is the All Powerful, the All-Wise.")
Five times of Namaaz
. Wa Aqimis-Salaata Ta rafayin Nahaari Wa Zulafam Minal Laiel. (11/114)
("And establish namaaz at both edges of the day dawn (Fajr) and evening (Maghrib) and the hours of the night which are near (the day), ('Ishaa, Witr and Tahaj-jud.")
. Haufizoo 'Alas Salaawaati Was Salaatil Wustaa. (2/238)
("Guard all Namaaz specially the middle one "Asr")
. Aqimis-Salaata Lidulookish Shams. (17/78)
("Establish Namaaz at the time when the sun is past the meridian "Zuhr")
Proof of the dawn (Fajr) and the evening (Maghrib) and the night ('Ishaa) Namaaz is found in the verse listed above at number 12, of the middle Namaaz ('Asr) in the verse listed at number 13 and of the postmeridian (Zuhr) Namaaz in the verse listed at number 14.
In short, every sane and adult Musalmaan male and Musalmaan female is absolutely obliged to say Namaaz five times daily. To deny that it is obligatory is infidelity, and missing it without any Shar'ee excuse is a cardinal sin. It is a wholly corporal adoration, and no representation can be allowed in it, that is, nobody else can say it on behalf of somebody else, nor can it be compensated by payment of money. It is a pillar of Islaam, and keeping it up is keeping up Deen itself. It is not forgiven even while travelling or being engaged otherwise. So much so, that if one cannot say it while standing he should say it sitting and if one cannot say it while sitting he should say it lying down. Performing it in a congregation (Jama'at) is 27 times more virtuous than doing it all by oneself.
The mode of saying Namaaz:
Before saying Namaaz, it is essential that the body, as well as the clothes, of the person intending to say Namaaz is pure and clean, and the place where it is to be said is also pure, and the time for Namaaz has arrived. Then, after doing ablution, one should stand facing towards the Qiblah with his feet four or five toes apart, and make in His heart the intention of saying whichever Namaaz he wishes to say. It is desirable to declare the intention by word of mouth. For example, he should say: "I intend to say four rak'aat of obligatory (fard) or Sunnat Namaaz of Zuhr, for the sake of Almighty Al-Laah, and I am facing the Ka'bah Shareef." If he is behind an Imaam (leader of the Namaaz), he should say, 'I do so behind this Imam.' He should then lift his hands to his ears in such a manner that his palms are towards the Qiblah and the fingers are neither separated nor joined up but are in their natural position. He should then bring down his hands while saying Al-Laahu Akbar (Al-Laah is the Greatest) and should put them below his navel in such a way that the right palm is over the head of the left wrist and the middle three fingers over the back of the left wrist and the thumb and the smaller fingers on the sides of the wrist and his gaze is on the spot where he is to prostrate (Sajdah) and say Sanaa (glorification of Al-Laah Almighty).
Sanaa "Glorification" (standing position) Qiyaam:
Subhanna kal-Laahum-ma Wa-Bihamdika Wa Tabaara kas muka Wa Ta'Aalaa Jad duka Wa Laa Ilaaha Ghaieruk.
("All glory be to You, O Al-Laah! Praise be to You, Blessed is Your name and exalted is Your majesty; and there is none worthy of worship excepting You.")
If he begins his Namaaz in a congregation behind an Imaam then he should stand silent after reciting Sanaa and listen to the recitation from the Qur'aan by the lmam, and if he is alone he should recite, after Sanaa, Ta'aw-wuz, Tasmiyah, Chapter Faatihah and any one of the other chapters of the Holy Qur'aan or part of it.
Ta'aw-wuz (to seek protection):
A'oozu Bil-Laahi Minash Shaietaa nir-Rajeem.
("I seek refuge with Al-Laah from Shaitaan, the accursed.")
Tasmiyah (to utter the name of Al-Laah)
(Al-Laah, in whose name I begin, is the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful).
Soorah Faatihah (the Opening chapter):
Al-Hamdu Lil-Laahi Rab-bil 'Aalameen, Ar-Rahmaa nir Raheem, Maa liki Yaumid deen, Iiy-yaaka Na'budu Wa Iiy-yaaka Nasta'een, Ihdinas Siraatal Mus-tageema Siraatal Lazeena An'amta 'Alaiehim, Ghaieril Maghdoobi 'Alaiehim Wa Lad daal-Leen. (Aameen.)
("All praise is due to Al-Laah, the Nourisher of the universes, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful, the Owner of the Day of Judgement. (O Al-Laah) You alone we worship and of You alone we seek help. Guide us into the straight path, the path of those whom You have favoured, not of those who earn (Your) wrath, nor of those who go astray.)" (Aameen)
Chapter Ikhlaas: (Purity)
Qul Huwal-Laahu Ahad. Al Laahus Samad. Lam Yalid, Wa Lam Yoolad. Wa Lam Yakul Lahu Kufu Ahad.
("Say, He is Al-Laah, the One. Al-Laah is above and beyond all dependence. He does not beget, and. nor is He begotten. And there is none to whom He can be likened.")
And then he should bow down, saying Al-Laahu Akbar (Al-Laah is the Greatest) and hold fast to his knees with his fingers, bowing down (Rukoo) to the extent that the head and the back are at level with each other, and recite the following at least thrice.
Tasbeeh-I-Rukoo' (glorifying Al-Laah while bowing down):
Subhaana Rab-biyal 'Azeem. ("How glorious is my Rabb, the Greatest!").
If Namaaz is being said in a congregation, only the Imaam should say Tasmee' while rising up from the bowing down position.
Sami 'Al-Laa-hu-liman Hamidah. ("Al-Laah has listened to him who has praised Him").
Qauma (standing erect after bowing down):
Then let your hands remain on the sides and resume the standing position, and the muqtadi should recite Tahmeed (praise of Al-Laah).
Rab-banaa Lakal Hamd. ("O our Rabb! All praise is due to You alone.")
A person saying Namaaz by himself should recite both Tasmee' and Tahmeed. Then, saying Al-Laahu Akbar, he should prostrate himself in the following manner: first put his knees firmly on the ground and then both his hands, his nose and his forehead and, then, put his face between both his hands. In so doing, the male should keep his arms apart from the sides, the belly from the thighs and the thighs from the shins; the elbows should be raised from the ground and the inside of the toes of both the feet should be set firmly on the ground facing the Qiblah; then, recite, at least thrice, the following tasbeeh,
Tasbeeh-I-Sajdah: (glorifying Al-Laah while in prostration):
Subhaana Rab-biyal A'laa. ("Glorified is my Rabb, the Most High").
Jalsah (sitting on knees between two prostrations):
Then, saying Al-Laahu Akbar, he should rise from the prostration in such a way that first the forehead, then the nose, then the hands are raised and then he should sit on his left foot which should be touching the ground, keep his right foot upright while its toes face the Qiblah and his hands be placed near the knees in a manner that the fingers face the Qiblah, then saying Al-Laahu Akbar he should perform the second prostration.
One should perform the second prostration, and, then, stand up saying Al-Laahu Akbar.
One should perform the bowing down and the prostration after reciting Tasmiyah, Faatihah and any other chapter. But if he is behind an Imaam, the follower (muqtadi) should not recite Bismil Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem, Faatihah or any other chapter. He should stand silent.
Qa'dah (sitting on knees after two rak'aat):
After completing both the prostrations of the second rakaat he should sit in the same position as he had done between the two prostrations.
At-yaatu Lil-Laahi Was-Sala-waatu Wat-taiey-yibaat, As-Salaamu 'Alaieka Aiey-yuhan-Nabeey-yu Wa Rahmatul-Laahi Wa Barakaatuh, As-Salaamu 'Alaienaa Wa 'Alaa 'Ibaadil Laahis-Saaliheen, Ash-hadu
Allaa Ilaaha Il-lal Laahu Wa Ash-hadu An-na Muhammadan 'Abduhu Wa Rasooluh.
("All reverence, all worship and all glory is due to Al-Laah alone. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Al-Laah and His Blessings. Peace be upon us and on those who are the righteous bondsmen of Al-Laah. I testify that none is deserving of being worshiped excepting Al-Laah, and I testify that Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) is His bondsman and His Messenger".)
When he arrives at the word 'laa' in the Tashah-hud, he should make a circle with the middle finger of his right hand and the thumb and join the little finger as well as the finger adjacent to it with the palm and raise his index finger and drop it after the word 'Il-Laa' has been said and all the fingers put straight. If it is a two rak'aat Namaaz then he should recite Durood and du'aa and say salaam. If it is a four rak'aat Namaaz then after reciting Tashah-hud he should stand up saying Al-Laahu Akbar, and during the rest of the two rak'aat, if they are obligatory (fard), he should recite only Bismil-Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem and the Chapter Faatihah and then, as is the rule, bow down and go into Rukoo and Sajdah (prostration). If they are Sunnat or nafl, then he should recite Bismil-Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem, the Chapter Faatihah and, any other chapter from the Qur'aan. But the muqtadi behind the Imaam would not recite Tasmiyah and Faatihah, but stand silent. Then he should sit down after completing four rak'aat and, after reciting Tashah-hud, Durood Shareef and the invocation, he should say salaam.
Durood Shareef (salutations to the holy Prophet):
Al-Laahum-ma Sal-li 'Alaa (Saiey-yidinaa) Muhammadin Wa 'Alaa Aali (Saiey-yidinaa) Muhammadin Kamaa Sal-laieta 'Alaa Ibraaheema Wa 'Alaa Aali lbraaheema In-naka Hameedum Majeed.
("O Al-Laah! Shower Your blessings on Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) and the progeny of Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) even as You showered Your blessings on Ibraaheem and the progeny of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You alone are worthy of all praise and are the Glorious.
Al-Laahum-ma Baarik 'Alaa (Saiey-yidinaa) Muhammadin Wa 'Alaa Aali (Saiey-yidinaa) Muhammadin Kamaa Baarakta 'Alaa Ibraaheema Wa 'Alaa Aali Ibraaheema In-naka Hameedum Majeed.
O Al-Laah! Bless Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) and the progeny of Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) even as You blessed Ibraaheem and the progeny of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You alone are worthy of praise and are the Glorious.
Rab-bij'alnee Muqeemas Salaati Wa Min Zur-yatee, Rab-banaa Wata Qab-bal Du'aa, Rab-banagh-fir Lee Wa Li Waali daiey-ya Wa Lil Mu'mineena Yauma Yaqoomul Hisaab.
(O my Rabb! Make me regular in namaaz and my progeny also. O our Rabb!! Grant my invocation. O our Rabb! Forgive my parents and all other Musalmaans on the Day when (actions) will be adjudged.")
Or, he should make this invocation:
Al Laahum-ma Inee Zalamtu Nafsee Zulman Kaseeran Wa Laa Yaghfiruz Zunooba Il-laa Anta Faghfir Lee Maghfirtanm Min 'Indika War Hamnee In-naka Antal Ghafoorur Raheem.
("O Al-Laah! I have been extremely unjust to myself and none grants forgiveness of sins but You; therefore, You forgive me with the forgiveness that comes from You, and have mercy on me. Surely, You are the Forgiving, the Merciful.")
Salaam (saying peace at the end):
As-Salaamu 'Alaeikum Wa Rahmatul Laah ("Peace on you and the mercy of Al-Laah!")
As-Salaamu 'Alaeikum Wa Rahmatul Laah ("Peace on you and the mercy of Al-Laah!")
During the salaam to the right, he should make the intention of saying salaam to the Angels to the right and to those saying Namaaz to the right, and during the salaam to the left he should make the intention of saying salaam to the Angels to the left and those saying Namaaz to the left, and when saying salaam in the direction of the Imaam he should also make the intention of saying it to the Imaam, and when he is alone he should make the intention of saying it to the Angels on each side.
(The above mode of saying Namaaz is for men.)
For women it is different in certain respects.
A woman should raise her hands upto the shoulders while saying Takbeer Tahreemah (Al-Laahu Akbar) and should not take them out of her overall or the sheet of cloth in which she is wrapped up. In the Qiyaam, she should fold her hands over her breast and place her palms one upon the back of the other. While in Rukoo' she should bow down to a lesser extent (than man) and bend her knees and places her hands on the knees but should not hold them. She should also not open up her fingers. She should do Rukoo' and sujood in a shrivelled up position. During Sajdah (prostration), she should join her belly with her thighs and her thighs with her shin, and should spread out her hands on the ground. When sitting to say At-Tahiy-yaat, she should do so on her haunches, jutting out her feet either to the right or to the left, and keeping her fingers joined up. In all other things, the rule for the male is the same as for the female.
Supplications and remembrances after Namaaz:
Fa'iza Qadaietumus-Salaata Fazkurul Laah. 4/103
("And remember Al-Laah when you are free from Namaaz").
First do Istighfaar (ask Al-Laah for His forgiveness) after every Namaaz thrice.
Astaghfirul-Laaha Rab-bee Min Kul-li Zanmb Wa Atoobu llaieh.
("I seek forgiveness of Al-Laah, who is my Rabb, for every sin I might have committed and I repent before Him").
After this, he should make any du'aa or any of the following supplications:
Al-Laahum-ma Antas-Salaamu Wa Minkas-Salaamu Wa Ilaieka Yarji'us-Salaam, Haiey-yinna Rab-banaa Bis-Salaami Wa Adkhilnaa Daaras-Salaam, Tabaarakta Rab-banaa Wa Ta'Aa laieta Yaa Zal Jalaali Wal Ikraam.
("O Al-Laah! You are the bestower of peace, and peace is from You and peace returns to You. O our Rabb! Keep us alive in peace and enter us into the House of Peace. You are the Most Blessed and the Most Mighty and the Most Sublime").
Rab-banaa Aatinna Fid-dunyaa Hasanatan Wa Fil Aa khirati Hasanatan Wa Qinaa'Azaaban Naar.
("O our Rabb! Grant us good in this world and in the hereafter and save us from the torment of Hell").
Make short supplications like the two mentioned above after those obligatory fard Namaaz after which Sunnat have to be said, and then say the Sunnat soon after, for any delay in doing so will diminish the reward, and after Sunnat recite other Azkaar (remembrances) and Wazaaif (routine acts of worship), and, of course, recite them after every obligatory fard Namaaz after which there is no Sunnat.
After every Namaaz recite these:
Subhaanal Laah (Glory be to Al-Laah) 33 times;
Al Hamdu Lil Laah (Praise be to Al-Laah) 33 times;
Al Laahu Akbar (Al-Laah is the Greatest) 34 times;
Then after, recite once the following:
Laa Ilaaha Il-lal Laahu Wahdahu Laa Shareeka Lahu Lahul Mulku Wa Lahul Hamdu Wa Huwa 'Alaa Kul-li Shaie'in Qadeer.
("There is no deity but Al -Laah; He is One and Unique; He has no partner; His is the kingdom and for Him is all praise; and He has authority over everything.")
Reciting this brings forgiveness of all sins.
Laa llaaha Il-lal Laahu Wahdahu Laa Shareeka Lahu Wa Huwa 'Alaa Kul-li Shaiein Qadeer. Al-Laahum-ma Laa Maani'a Limaa A'taieta Wa Laa Mu'tiya Limaa Mana'ta Wa Laa Raad-da Limaa Qadaieta Wa Laa Yanfa'u Zal Jad-di Minkal Jadd.
("There is no deity but Al-Laah; He is One and Unique; there is no partner with Him; and He has authority over everything. O Al-Laah! There is none to prevent what You would bestow and there is none to give what You would withhold and there is none to turn back what You will; and no man will be benefited by his wealth against Your will.")
Third remembrance (Aayatal Kursee or Verses of the Throne):
Al Laahu Laa Ilaaha IlLaa Huwal Haiey-yul Qaiey-yoom, Laa Ta 'Khuzuhu Sinatun wa Laa Naum, Lahu Maa Fis-samaa waati Wa Maa Fil Ard, Man Zal-Lazee Yashfa'u 'Indahu Il-laa Bi'iznih, Ya'lamu Maa Baiena Aiedeehim Wa Maa Khalfahum, Wa Laa Yuheetoona Bishaie'inm Min 'Ilmihi Il-Laa Bimaa Shaa, Wa Si'a Kurseey-Samaa waati Wal Ard, Wa Laa Ya'ooduhu Hifzuhu maa, Wa Huwal 'Aleey-yul 'Azeem.
"Al-Laah! There is no deity but He, the Living, the Sustainer. Neither slumber overtakes Him, nor does sleep. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is there to recommend (any one) to Him without His leave? He knows all' that is before them and all that (which will be) after them and they encompass nothing of His knowledge save that much which He will. His Throne encompasses the heavens and the earth, and the guarding (of the two) does not weary Him. He is the Most High, the Most Great."
It is a must to recite Durood Shareef before and after every supplication, otherwise the supplication will not be presented before Al-Laah but will remain suspended as if in mid-air.
Timings of Namaaz:
In-nas-Salaata kaanat 'Alal Mu 'mineena Kituabanm Mauqootoa. (4/103)
(Surely, Namaaz at appointed times is obligatory (fard) on Mumins")
Every Namaaz should be said at the time appointed for it. A Namaaz said before time will be deemed not to have been said, and the one said after time will. also not be deemed to have been performed but one deemed to have been performed after due time (Qazaa).
Fajr (dawn prayer):
The time for Namaaz-e-Fajr begins at dawn and ends at the time when the sun's rays are resplendent. Dawn of day is the light which spreads over the sky (in the east) and then there is light.
Zuhr (post-meridian prayer):
The time for Namaaz-e-Zuhr begins at post-meridian and lasts till the shadow of everything, except the real shadow, doubles. The real shadow is that which occurs before the sun reaches the meridian.
Asr (late afternoon prayer):
The time for Namaaz-e-'Asr begins when the time for Zuhr ends and lasts till sunset. It is better to say it before the sunlight becomes bright yellow because the time becomes odious when sunlight gets to be yellow, although Namaaz would have been performed.
Maghrib (post-sundown prayer):
The time for Namaaz-e-Maghrib begins at sundown and ends at the setting of the evening twilight. Evening twilight is that whiteness which remains spread from south to north after the red glow has ended.
Ishaa (prayer in the first watch of the night):
The time for Namaaz-e-Ishaa begins when the evening twilight sets and lasts till the dawn off Fajr, but is odious after midnight.
Experience has proved that during long nights the time for 'Ishaa Namaaz begins nearly one half hours after Maghrib and one quarter hours during short nights.
Odious (Makrooh) timings:
NUMBER OF RAK'AAT
|Name of Namaaz||
Non-emphazised sunnat before the obligatory
Emphasised sunnat before the obligatory Namaaz
Obligatory (fard) Namaaz
Emphasised sunnat after obligatory Namaaz
Voluntary namaaz (nafl)
(3 essential witr)
(2 before witr and 2 after it