Conditions of Namaaz. obligatory, desirable, Sunnat:
Amongst the mode of saying entire Namaaz described earlier some are conditions for Namaaz, some are obligations, some are desirables, some are Sunnat and some are permissible. A person saying Namaaz should memorise each one of them separately.
There are six conditions for Namaaz:
Fulfilling these conditions before starting Namaaz is necessary, otherwise Namaaz will not be deemed to have been said.
Obligatory acts (Faraa'id):
There are seven obligatory acts of Namaaz:
The essentials (waajibaat) of Namaaz:
To recite once the complete Faatihah in
If any of the essentials (waajibaat) of Namaaz were left out by mistake, then doing Namaaz would make the Namaaz valid. In the event of the sajda Shave not being deliberately done, Namaaz must be said afresh.
The Sunnat acts of Namaaz:
To raise both hands upto the ears while saying the takbeer tahreemah (Al-Laahu Akbar). To keep the palms facing the Qiblah, for the Imaam to say all the takbeer of the Namaaz in a loud voice; to fold the hands below the navel; to recite Sanaa, Taaw-wuz and Tasmiyah softly; to say Aameen.
After Faatihah softly; to say takbeer (Al-Lahu Akbar) while going from one aspect of Namaaz to the other; to recite softly Bismil-Laahir Rahmaanir Raheem at the beginning of every rak'aat; to recite only Faatihah in the third and the fourth rak'aat of fard; to recite tasbeeh (praise of Al-Laah) thrice during Rukoo (bowing down) and sujood (prostrations); while in Rukoo' to keep the legs straight and to hold the knees by the hand in such a manner that the fingers are stretched out and the head and the back are at a level; for the Imaam to say Sami'al Laahu Liman Hamidah and for the led to say Rab-banaa Lakal Hamd while rising up from the bowing down position (a person saying Namaaz by himself should say both);
To place on the ground first the knees, then the hands, then the nose, then the forehead while going down for the (Sajdah) prostration and to do the opposite of this while rising up from the Sajdah (prostration); to keep the arms apart from the sides and the belly from the thighs (but when in the ranks he should not keep his arms apart from the sides); to keep the wrists above the ground, the fingers facing the Qiblah and joined; to keep the right foot in erect position and the left foot flat and then sit on it between the two prostrations; to keep the hands on the thighs; to keep both the feet touching the ground and facing the Qiblah; when reciting tashah-hud, that is, Ashhadu al-Laa Ilaaha Il-lal Laah, to point out with the index finger in such a way that the finger is raised at the word laa and put down at the word Illa and all other fingers are stretched facing the Qiblah (Ka'bah); to recite Durood Shareef and any masnoon supplication after tashah-hud; to say salaam twice, first to the right and then to the left; for the. Imaam to say salaam in a loud voice but the second time it is said it should be done in a relatively soft voice. If any of these Sunnat acts is left out unintentionally or intentionally the Namaaz does not become void nor sajda Shave becomes due, although he who leaves it out deliberately is a sinner.
Desirable acts (Mustahab-Baat) of Namaaz:
To leave a gap of about 4 toes between the two feet; to recite tasbeeh more than three times, (five or seven times), during the bowing down or the prostrations; to fix the gaze at the place where the forehead is to be placed, at the back of both feet while bowing down, at the tip of the nose while prostrating, at the lap during qa'dah (sitting on knees), at the shoulders while saying salaam; to keep the mouth closed when yawning and to cover it with the back of one hand if it remains open.
Acts which vitiate (mufsidaat) Namaaz:
To talk to somebody or to reply to somebody's salutation with intent or without intent; to salute somebody with intent or by mistake; to reply to somebody's sneeze; to say 'sit down' or 'oh, no' when the Imaam forgets something; to say Jal-la Jalaa-Luhu (eminent is Al-Laah's glory) on hearing Al-Laah's name and to recite Durood Shareef by way of response to hearing the name of the holy Prophet (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam), but there is no harm if it is not said by way of reply; to remind any one else but his own Imaam (Namaaz leader) of words left out by him or of any other remises; to exclaim 'aah' or 'oh' etc. when in pain or in trouble, but it is forgiven if it comes out of his mouth involuntarily; to intentionally end Namaaz by saying salaam before it is completed, but there is no harm if it is done by mistake and sajda shave is done after completing Namaaz to read (as opposed to reciting from memory) the Qur'aan while saying Namaaz; to say something on hearing any good or bad news; to make serious mistakes while reciting the Qur'aan or any otter recitation during Namaaz to eat or drink something, but it is not vitiated when something which had remained stuck up between the teeth is swallowed up: if it is equal to a gram Namaaz is vitiated and if it is less than a gram Namaaz is not vitiated but becomes only odious; to withdraw the breast away from the Qiblah; to let the child suck at the woman's breast so that milk begins to flow from it; kissing by a man of his woman or touching her body with lust while the female is engaged in saying Namaaz is nullified by any of the vitiating acts described above. Watch should, therefore, be kept against all of them.
Acts considered odious (makroohaat) during Namaaz
To wrap up the clothes: for example, to wrap them up from front or from behind while going down for the prostration, though this might have been done only to avoid dust; to let the clothes flow: for example, to place them over the head or over the shoulder in such a way that their edges are flowing over; to roll up the sleeves above half the elbows; to say Namaaz while one is intensely feeling the need to ease himself of stool, urine or flatulence; to crack the fingers; to intertwine the fingers, that is to say, to lock the fingers of one hand into the fingers of another; to look hither and thither; to lift the gaze towards the sky; to say Namaaz in-front of somebody's face; to say Namaaz in clothes with animal objects on them; to say Namaaz while a picture is hung over his right or his left or his head; to recite the Qur'aan from the wrong end; to go into Sajdah Rukoo before the Imaam (the Namaaz leader does so; to have a grave in front with nothing coming in between: it will not be considered odious it something is put in between, even though it be a small screen, and if the grave is situated to the right or to the left. In case any of the above odiousness occurs, Namaaz will become defective. Care should, therefore, be taken to refrain from doing any of these.
Excuses for breaking off Namaaz:
To kill a snake, etc. when it is apprehended that it would cause hurt; to catch a runaway (domesticated) animal; being apprehensive of coming to harm: for example, milk would boil over, or meat, vegetable, bread would get burnt up; a thief would get away with something; the train would leave without him; a woman who is a stranger to him has touched him; there is intense need to ease himself; a man in distress is crying out for help, or somebody is drowning or burning in fire or a blind wayfarer, etc. is about to fall in a well. In all such situations, it is permitted to abandon Namaaz. In latter situations, it is even essential to do so if one is capable of helping.
Of Sajda Sahve (prostration for forgetfulness):
It is a must to do Sajda Sahve if an essential (waajib) of Namaaz is left out unintentionally or an obligatory act (fard) is repeated (for example, Rukoo' is performed twice), or an excess is committed in the obligatory acts or the essentials of Namaaz (for example, in the first Qa'dah (sitting down after two rak'aat) Durood Shareef is said after tashah-hud). The muqtadi (follower) must offer the sajda Sahve if the Imaam does so. But it is not necessary for the muqtadi to do the sajda Sahve if the mistake has been committed by himself since he is under the discipline of the Imaam. The muqtadi should draw the lmaam's attention by calling out subhaanal Laah (all praise is due to Al-Laah) if he is committing a mistake. It is best for the Imaam to turn back from committing the mistake; otherwise the muqtadi should follow the Imaam, and should do the Sajda Sahve with the Imaam at the end of Namaaz
Mode of doing Sajda-I-Sahve:
After reciting tashah-hud and Durood in the last qa'dah and after saying salaam on the right side (only), one should do two prostrations, and after this he should again recite tashah-hud, Durood and supplication and then say salaam on both sides.
Namaaz Witr (Waajib):
Namaaz Witr is an essential act and its qazaa should be said if it had not been said earlier when it was due. The time for it is after the obligatory (fard) Namaaz of 'Ishaa upto dawn, but it is better to say it along with Tahajjud late in the night. But if one is afraid that he might not get up after going to bed, he should say it along with 'Ishaa before going to bed. It consists of three rak'aat. Qa'dah (sitting down) should be done after two rak'aat have been said and the standing position taken after reciting tashah-hud. In the third rak'aat, one should first recite Chapter Faatihah and another chapter and then raise both hands upto the ears, and then fold his hands after saying Al-Laahu Akbar and then recite Du'aa-Qunoot (Invocation of Obeisance) softly, as doing so is essential.
Al-Laahu-ma In-naa Nasta'eenuka Wa Nastagh firuka Wa Nu'minu Bika Wa Natawak-kalu, 'Alaieka Wa Nusnee 'Alaiekal Khaier, Wa Nash kuruka Wa Laa Nakfuruka wa Nakh La'u Wa Natruku Maien- Yafjuruk, AlLaahum-ma Iiy-yaaka Na 'budu Wa Laka Nusal-lee Wa Nasjudu Wa llaieka Nas'aa Wa Nahfidu Wa Narjoo Rahmataka Wa Nakh shaa 'Azaabaka In-na 'Azaabaka Bil Kuf-faari Mulhiq.
"O Al-Laah! We beseech You for Your help and ask You for Your forgiveness, and believe in You and put our trust in You and we praise You in the best manner and we thank You and we are not ungrateful to You and we cast off and forsake one who disobeys You. O Al-Laah! You alone we worship and to You we pray and make obeisance and to You do we run and we present ourselves for serving you and we hope for Your mercy and fear Your chastisement. Surely' Your chastisement overtakes the unbelievers.")
Those who are unable to recite du'aa-e-qunoot should recite the following supplication:
Rab-banaa Aatinna Fid-dunyaa Hasanatan Wa Fil Aakhirati Hasanatan Wa Qinaa'Azaaban Naar.
("O our Rabb! We seek of You good in this world and good in the Hereafter and safety from the torment of Hell.")
If he forgets to recite du'aa-e-qunoot and goes in Rukoo', he should not return to it but should do sajda Sahve.
Of Jamaat (congregation) and leadership:
War Ka'oo Ma'ar-Raaki'een. (2/43)
("And bow down in Rukoo' with those who bow down.")
To say Namaaz in congregation is essential One is a sinner if he fails to do so even once without a valid excuse, and one abandoning it habitually is a great sinner and is liable to be punished. Congregation is a condition for saying Friday (Jum'ah) Namaaz and the Namaaz of the two Ieeds, and in taraaweeh it is a Sunnat-I-kifaayah, i.e. if it is performed by some in the locality then it is deemed to have been offered by everybody else, and if it is not performed by any one in the locality then all would be deemed to have done something evil. To say Namaaz in (Jama'at) congregation brings 27 times more reward.
The Imaam should be of the Ahl-Sunnat-wa-Jamaat with correct beliefs, abstain from sins, strictly follows shard 'at (Islamic revealed law), recites the Qur'aan correctly, and is in greater know of the requisites of Namaaz and of cleanliness. A Namaaz becomes odious and has to be said again if it is led by a person having wrong beliefs and is openly impious, like a drinker, a fornicator, an usurer, a backbiter, or one not keeping beard or keeping it not as prescribed. The leadership (Imaamat) of a woman is taboo. The leadership of a bastard, a leper, and a man who is paralysed is also odious when one better than such is available. The leadership (Imaamat) of a blind person is allowed without any unjustifiable attaching to it if that person is mindful of cleanliness, etc.
Those on whom congregation is not due:
The women; the sick; the invalids; the lame; the crippled; very old persons; and the blind.
Excuses for abandoning congregation:
It is permissible to forgo the congregation if it is intensely cold; if it is intensely dark; there is an apprehension of intense rain; there is wind and mud on the way; apprehension of theft; fear of a tyrant or an oppressor; intense need to ease oneself; food being served while he is hungry; while tending the sick. In all such situations, even healthy people are permitted to miss the congregation.