Namaaz-i-Jum'ah (Friday prayer):
Yaa Aiey-yuhal Lazeena Aamanoo Izaa Noodiya Lis-Salaati Min-y Yaumil Jumu'ati Fas'au Ilaa Zikril Laahi Wa Zarul Baie'a Zaalikum Khaierul-Lakum In Kun-tum Ta'lamoon. (62/9)
("O those who believe! When you are called to Namaaz on Friday (Jum'ah), then run for the remembrance of Al-Laah, and leave all commerce. This is better for you, if you knew.")
Namaaz-i-Jum'ah is absolutely obligatory. Its obligatory nature has been more emphasised than that of Zuhr and anybody denying this is an infidel. The Jum'ah Namaaz stands in lieu of Zuhr and the time for it is the same as for Zuhr.
Conditions for holding of Jum'ah Namaaz:
There are certain requisites for the Jum'ah Namaaz which are necessary to be met. If even one of the conditions is not met, Jum'ah Namaaz will not be held. Wherever any of the conditions is not fulfilled Namaaz for Zuhr will be said. The conditions are: (1) a town exists, or, in place of a town, there is a village which has a central status in the area; (2) the time is that for Zuhr Namaaz; (3) a sermon is delivered before Namaaz; (4) a congregation has to be there for without a congregation Jum'ah Namaaz will not be held; and (5) there is general permission to participate in it.
Those on whom Jum'ah Namaaz is obligatory (fard):
Jum'ah Namaaz is a must for every male Musalmaan who is free, sane, healthy and resident.
Those on whom Jum'ah Namaaz is not obligatory (fard):
Jum'ah Namaaz is not obligatory on a woman; a slave; a prisoner; a minor; one who has lost his senses; an invalid; one who is handicapped; one who tends the sick; a wayfarer; one who is afraid of somebody; one who rightly apprehends harm coming to him. But if the wayfarer, the sick and the women participate in the Namaaz then their Namaaz would be deemed to be valid and they would be deemed to have been absolved of the duty of saying Zuhr Namaaz. To bathe on a Jum'ah is a Sunnat, and to put on good clothes and perfumes, to do miswaak (brush the teeth), and to sit in the front row of the mosque are desirable acts (mustahab).
Things, which are unlawful during Namaaz, are also unlawful during the khutbah (sermon): for example, eating, drinking, and saluting and talking etc. even doing virtuous deeds. It is obligatory on all present to listen to the khutbah and to maintain silence. The khateeb (the person delivering the sermon), can, however, order virtuous deeds. It is prohibited for the listeners in general to raise their hands or to say 'Aameen' when the khateeb utters a benedictory sentence. It is permissible to make a supplication between two sermons for something good without raising the hands, and in silence.
Namaaz on the 'Ieeds:
Wa Litukmilul Id-data Wa Li-yukab-birul Laah. (2/185)
("Complete the count of the fasts and glorify Al-Laah, that is, say takbeer.)
He has also commanded: Fasal-li Lirab-bika Wanhar. ("Say Namaaz for the sake of your Rabb, and make a sacrifice (Qurbaanee).
Namaaz on the 'Ieeds is essential (Waajib). Not for everybody but only for those on whom the Jum'ah Namaaz is obligatory. And the conditions for offering these are the same as those for the Jum'ah Namaaz, the only difference being that the khutbah (sermon) in the Jum'ah Namaaz is a prerequisite but in the two 'Ieeds it is Sunnat. The time for the Ieed Namaaz is from when the sun rises to a height of one spear till after the sun has declined (zawaal). But it is desirable (mustahab) to somewhat delay it for 'Ieed-Fitr and to hurry it for Ieed-ul-Adhaa. There is no Azaan and Iqaamat before these Namaaz. The mode of saying Namaaz on these two occasions is the same.
Mode of Namaaz:
First, define the intention (neey-yat) to say two rak'aat of Waajib (essential) Namaaz for 'Ieed-ul-Fitr, or 'Ieed-ul-Adhaa, with six additional takbeer (Al-Laahu Akhbar). Then, after saying takbeer tahreemah fold the hands and recite Sanaa (praise of Al-Laah). Then, the (Imaam) leader of the Namaaz in a loud voice and the led in a soft voice say takbeer thrice, letting go of their hands after saying takbeer twice and folding them after the third one. Then, the Imaam (prayer leader) should recite aloud Chapter Faatihah and one other chapter and then go for Rukoo' and sujood (prostrations). In the second rak'aat, after reciting Faatihah and one other chapter, and before going for the Rukoo', the Imaam as well as the led should raise their hands to the ears and say takbeer (Al-Laahu Akbar) thrice and then let go of their hands. While saying the fourth takbeer they should not raise their hands upto the ears but should go for the Rukoo' and complete Namaaz according to the rules.
Things deemed to be desirable (Mustahabaat) on 'Ieed days:
To have a hair cut; to cut the nails; to do the miswaak (brush the teeth) and to bathe; to wear good clothes; to put on perfume; to go on foot to the 'Ieed-gaah (place where 'Iced Namaaz is held); to say takbeer of Ieed while on the way to where the Namaaz is to be held and to return by a different route; to give Sadqa-i-Fitr before 'Ieed-ul-Fitr Namaaz and to eat some sweet things (it is better to take odd number of dates, three, five or seven); to greet each other and to shake hands and to embrace and congratulate each other.
The words of Takbeer of 'Ieed:
Al-Laahu Akbarul Laahu Akbar, Laa Ilaaha Il-Laahu Wal-Laahu Akbarul-Laahu Akbaru Wa-Lil Laahil Hamd.
("Al-Laah is the Greatest, Al-Laah is the Greatest There is no deity but Al-Laah and Al- Laah is. the Greatest and all praise is for Al-Laah alone".)
This takbeer should be recited immediately after Fajr Namaaz on the 9th Zil-Hijjah and continued upto the 'Asr Namaaz on the 13th of Zil-Hijjah. To recite it once is Waajib (essential) but reciting it thrice is more rewarding. It is called Takbeer-i-Tashreeq.
Namaaz-i-Janaazah (Funeral Prayer):
Wa Laa Tusal-il 'Alaa Ahad-inm Minhu Maata Abadaa (9/84)
"And never stand for Namaaz over their dead bodies (of the infidels and the hypocrites)". But stand for Namaaz over the dead body of the faithful (Musalmaan).
Namaaz-i-Janaazah is a fard-i-kifaayah, which means that even if it is said by some only, all are absolved; otherwise all will be held to be sinners for not attending it even when they had come to know of it.
A congregation (Jama'at) is not necessary for this (Namaaz). Even if one person says it the obligation (fard) would have been met. It has two pillars: to say takbeer four times and in a standing position. There are three Sunnats to it: to recite the glory and praise of Al-Laah; to recite Durood on the holy Prophet (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam); and to make a supplication for the dead. Dead means a person born alive and dying later. There is no funeral prayer for a person born dead. Also, it is essential for the dead body to be present; there is no funeral prayer for an absentee dead. If several dead bodies are present, then one funeral prayer for all of them will do. It is better that one should define the intent for all, and say the funeral prayer for them separately.
Mode of Namaaz:
After defining the intent, both the Imaam and those behind him should raise their hands to their ears and then fold them below the navel while saying Al-Laahu Akbar; then recite Sanaa and after saying wata'aalaa Jad-duka (exalted is Your name) say Wa Jal-la sanaa'uka Wa Laa ilaaha Ghaieruka.
(Exalted is Your majesty and none is worthy of worship except You); then, say takbeer without raising the hands and then recite the Durood Shareef which is recited during Namaaz; then say takbeer without raising the hands and then make the supplication. Those following the Imaam should say takbeer softly and the Imaam should say it aloud.
Supplication for an adult male or female:
Al-Laahum-magh fir Li haieyyinaa Wa Maiey-yitina Wa Shaa hidinaa Wa Ghaa'ibinaa Wa Sagheerinaa Wa Kabeerinaa Wa Zakarinaa Wa 'Unsaanaa, Al-Laahum-ma Man Ahyaietahu Minnaa Fa Ahyihi 'Alal Islaami Wa Man Tawaf-faietahu Min-na Fata Waf-fahu 'Alal Ieemaan.
("O Al-Laah! Forgive and pardon our living and our dead, our present and our absent, our young and our old, and our male and our female. O Al-Laah! Grant to those of us who are living the ability to live while observing Islaam and bless those of us who meet with death in a state of faith and leemaan.)
Supplication for a minor boy:
Al-Laahum-maj 'alhu Lanaa Faratan-Waj'alhu Lanaa Ajran Wa Zukhran Waj'alhu Lanaa Shaafi'an Wa Mushaf-fa'aa.
("O Al-Laah! Make him our fore runner, and make him for us a reward and a treasure and a store of merit, and make him for us an advocate and an intercessor, and accept his intercession.")
Supplication for a minor girl:
Al-Laahum-maj 'alhu Lanaa Faratan Waj'alhu Lanaa Ajran Wa Zukhra Waj'alhu Lanaa Shaafi'atan Wa Mushaf fa'ah.
("O Al-Laah! Make her our fore runner, and make her for us a reward and a treasure and a store of merit, and make her for us an advocate and an intercessor, and accept her intercession.")
After the invocation (Du'aa), say the fourth takbeer, unfold both the hands and say salaam on both sides, and make the supplication after leaving the ranks.
Note:To shoulder a dead body is an adoration and brings great and good reward. It is an absolutely wrong impression among the generality of the people that a husband should not shoulder his wife's dead body, nor should he lower her in the grave, nor sees her face. The only thing forbidden is to bathe her and to touch her un-screened. A woman can bathe her husband.
Namaaz of the traveller (Namaaz-i-Musaafir):
A traveller is he who has gone at least 57 miles (about 80 kilometres) away from his normal place of residence. It is obligatory on him to curtail only his obligatory Namaaz, that is to say, his Namaaz will be complete if he were to say only two of the 4 rak'aat obligatory Namaaz. If, by mistake or by intention, he were to say four rak'aat and do qa'dah (sitting on knees after two rak'aat) he would have accomplished his obligatory Namaaz and the later two rak'aat would be treated as nafl. But he who says four rak'aat intentionally will have to bear a great load of sins, and he must repent for this. If the traveller says his Namaaz behind a resident Imaam, he would, of course, say four rak'aat; and if a resident of the place says his Namaaz behind an Imaam who is a traveller, then, after the Imaam has offered salaam, he should go on and complete his remaining two rak'aat but would not recite the Chapter Faatihah in these two rak'aat but would stand silent for the duration the Faatihah is being recited and would do the rest in the usual manner. The traveller remains a traveller so long as he does not return to his normal place of residence. If he goes to some other city or village and intends to stay there for less than fifteen days, he should say quasar (shortened) Namaaz; if he intends to stay there for more than fifteen days, he should say the full Namaaz. Qasr is only in the 4 rak'aat obligatory Namaaz, and it does not apply to Sunnat and witr. Sunnat will be said in full while travelling.
This Namaaz has great rewards. He who says it receives as much reward as for the entire Hajj and 'Umrah. It consists of only two rak'aat After saying Fajr Namaaz in congregation, the worshipper should continue to sit (in the mosque) engaged in the remembrances of Al-Laah, and, then, say this Namaaz when the sun rises to a considerable height.
Great virtue attaches to this Namaaz. To a person saying it always, all his sins, even if they be equivalent to the scum of the sea, are forgiven and he will have a palace made of gold in Paradise. In this Namaaz, there are at least two and at best twelve rak'aat, preferably twelve. The time for saying it is post-meridian till the decline of the sun.
This Namaaz has rewards beyond measure and there are four rak'aat in it. It may be said at any time except the times, which are odious, preferably before Zuhr. Following is the mode of saying it. Recite Sanaa after takbeer-i-tahreemah. Then after Sanaa recite this Kalimah 15 times:
Subhaanal-Laahi Wal Hamdu Lil Laahi Wa Laa Ilaaha Il-Laahu Wal Laahu Akbar.
(Glory be to Al-Laah and all praise be to Al-Laah. There is no deity but Al-Laah. Al-Laah is the Greatest).
Then recite Taaw-wuz and Tasmiyah and the chapter Faatihah and another chapter, and, then, recite this very Kalimah ten times; then, go in Rukoo and after the tasbeeh of Rukoo' recite this very Kalimah ten times; then go for prostration (Sajdah) and after reciting tasbeeh of prostration again recite this very Kalimah ten times; then, rising from the prostration and while sitting (Jalsah), recite this very Kalimah ten times; then, in the second prostration, after tasbeeh, recite it fifteen times; then, in the second rak'aat, before reciting Faatihah, recite it 15 times; and In this order complete it in four rak'aat, 75 times in each rakaat and 300 times in all four rak'aat.
Namaaz-i-Haajat for fulfilment of needs:
Someone in need of something should first do the ablution thoroughly, then say two rak'aat of Namaaz, then recite Hamd and Sanaa (praise and glory) of Al-Laah and send Durood to the holy Prophet (Sallal Laahu Alaihi Wa Sallam), and then make one of the following two supplications:
Laa Ilaaha Il-Laahul Haleemul Kareem, Subhaanal Laahi Rab-bil 'Arshil 'Azeem, Wal Hamdu Lil Laahi Rab-bil 'Aalameen. As'aluka Moojibaata Rahmatika Wa 'Azaa'ima Maghfiratika Wal Ghaneemata Min Kul-li Birrin Was-Salaamata Min Kul-li 'Ismin, Laa Tada' Zanmban Il-laa Ghafartahu Walaa Ham-man Il-laa Far-rajtahu Walaa Haajatan Hiya Laka Ridan Il-laa Qadaietahaa Yaa Arhamar-Raahimeen.
("There is no deity but Al-Laah, the Most Clement, the Most Merciful. Glory be to Al-Laah, Rabb of the lofty throne and all praise is due to the Rabb of the worlds. O Al-Laah! I seek from You the means of Your blessing and seek from You the means to Your forgiveness and the achievement of every good and protection from every sin. (O Al-Laah!) Do not leave any of my sins without forgiving it and any of my woes without removing it and any of the needs, which has Your approval without fulfilling it. O Most Merciful of all those who are merciful.")
Al-Laahum-ma 'In-nee 'As'aluka Wa Ata Waj-jahu 'llaieka Bi Nabeey-yika Muhammadin Nabeey-yir Rahmah (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam). Yaa Rasoolal Laahi (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam). 'In-nee Qad Tawaj-jahtu Bika 'llaa Rab-bee Fee Haajatee Haazihi Lituqdaa Lee. Al-Laahum-ma Fashaffi'hu Feey-ya.
("O Al-Laah! I beg You and turn to You through Your Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (Sallal Laahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) who is a merciful Prophet. O Prophet of Al-Laah! I have turned my attention to my Rabb through you for this need so that it may be fulfilled. O Al-Laah! Accept his intercession on my behalf.")
Doing Istikhaarah simply means seeking good from Al
Laah. One should do it whenever he intends to embark upon an important task and supplicate to Him Who knows best about all the unseen and unknown things to indicate to him whether doing a particular thing is good for him or not.
Mode of doing Istikhaarah:
First offer two rak'aat in such a way that in the first rak'aat Chapter Faatihah is recited and, then, the Chapter Qul Ya Aiy-yuhal Kaafiroon is recited and in the second rak'aat, after Faatihah, the Chapter
Qul Huwal Iaahu Ahad is recited, and then, after the salaam, the following invocation is made:
Al-Laahum-nee Astakheeruka Bi'ilmika Wa Astaqdiruka Bi Qudrtika Wa As'aluka Min Fadlikal 'Azeem. Fa'in-naka Taqdiru Wa Laa Aqdiru Wa Ta'lamu Wa Laa A'lamu Wa Anta 'Al-laamul Ghuyoob. Al-Laahum-ma In Kunta Ta'lamu An-na Haazal Amra Khaierul-Lee Fee Deenee Wa Ma'aa Shee Wa 'Aaqibati Amree Wa'Aajili Amree Wa 'Aajilihi Faqdurhu Lee Wa Yas-sirhu Lee Sum-ma Baarik Lee FeehiAl-Laahum-ma In Kunta Ta'lamu Anna Haazal Amra Shar-ul-Lee Fee Deenee Wa Ma'aa Shee Wa 'Aaqibati Amree Wa'Aajili Amree Wa 'Aajilihi Fasrifhu 'An-nee Wasrifnee 'Anhu Waqdur Leey-al Khaiera Haiesu Kaana Sum-ma Ardinee Bihi.
("O Al-Laah! I beseech You for the good with Your knowledge, and I request to have power through Your power, and I ask you for Your bounty, because You have power and I do not have it and You are All Knowing while I do not have any, and You know best the invisible. O Al-Laah! If You know this thing (which I intend doing) is good for my faith, for my livelihood and for the ultimate consequences, here and in the hereafter, of my affairs, then ordain it for me and make it easy and make it a blessing for me. O Al-Laah! If You know that this thing is bad for my faith, for my livelihood, and for the ultimate consequences, here and in the hereafter, of my affairs, then turn it away from me and turn me away from it, and ordain for me the good wherever it may be and, then, make me pleased with it.")
It is better for a person doing Istikhaarah to do it seven times, and having made the supplication go to sleep in a state of cleanliness facing the Qiblah. He should recite Durood Shareef before and after the supplication. If in a subsequent dream he sees something white or green he should think that what he intends to do is good for him; if he sees something red or black he should think that what he intends to do is bad for him and, therefore, he should desist from it.
Namaaz said after 'Ishaa and before witr during the month of Ramadaan is called Taraaweeh. It is a Sunnat-i-Muak kadah (a thing doing of which has been ordered by the Prophet) for both the male as well as the female. It comprises 20 rak'aat (in twos) with ten salaam. It is desirable to rest awhile after every four rak'aat and to recite tasbeeh, which is:
Subhaana Zil Mulki Wal Malakoot, Subhaana Zil 'Iz-zati Wal 'Azmati Wal Haiebati Wal Qudrati Wal Kibriyaa'i Wal Jabaroot, Subhaanal Malikil Haiey-Lazee Laa Yanaamu Walaa Yamoot, Subboohun Qud-doosun Rab-bunaa Wa Rab-bul Malaa'ikati War-Rooh, Al-Laahum-ma Ajirnaa Minan-Naari, Yaa Mujeeru, Yaa Mujeeru, Yaa Mujeeru. As-Salaatu 'A laa Muhammad.(Salaatan-Wa Salaaman 'Alaieka Yaa Rasoolal Laah).
("Glory be to Him to Whom belongs the kingdom and the sovereignty. Glory be to Him to Whom belongs all honour and all munificence and all awe and all greatness and all power, and all grandeour and all authority. Glory be to Him Who is the King Everlasting, Whom neither slumber overtakes nor death. He is the Absolutely Pure, the All Holy. He is our Rabb as well as of the Angels, and of the rooh (Spirit). O Al-Laah! Protect us from Hell Fire. O Protector, O Protector, O Protector! Peace be upon Muhammad.")
The Namaaz-i-Taraaweeh for the adults will not be deemed to have been said if it is led by a minor. It is also not permitted to have a Haafiz (a person who has learnt the Qur'aan by heart) on hire for the purpose of conducting Taraaweeh; it is, however, permitted for something to be given to him in recognition of his services. He who has not said his obligatory Namaaz in congregation should not say witr in congregation but say it by himself.
Namaaz-I- Tahaj-jud (late night prayer):
Tahaj-jud is the Namaaz, which is said after the Namaaz of 'Ishaa after getting up from sleep and it brings great rewards. It comprises at least two and at the most twelve rak'aat.
Salaat-ul-Laiel (or night Namaaz):
The Namaaz, which is said after 'Ishaa before going to bed is called Salaat-ul-Laiel: It is the most rewarding Namaaz after the obligatory ones.
Namaaz-e-Safar (Namaaz for travel):
To say two rakaat of Namaaz at home while embarking on a journey, and on return to say two rak'aat in the mosque (masjid) before returning home is masnoon (exemplified by the holy Prophet) and is highly blessed.
Qazaa Namaaz (the missed Namaaz):
The Namaaz said after the prescribed time is called Qazaa (missed), and to miss it without any cogent and valid (according to Islamic laws) reason is a great sin. It is obligatory on him who misses it to offer Qazaa for it and repent for it from the core of his heart. Obligatory Qazaa for an obligatory Namaaz; for a Waajib (essential) one an essential one; and for some Sunnat (exemplified by the holy Prophet) Sunnat: for example, the Sunnat of the dawn Namaaz when the obligatory (fard) also has been missed, and the first four Sunnat of Zuhr as well, when the time for it is still there. There is no time limit for saying Qazaa Namaaz. He will acquit himself of his responsibility in this regard whenever he says it; of course, it should not be said at sunrise and at sunset, or at a time when the sun begins to decline. It should be said as early as possible and not delayed. If the Sunnat of Zuhr and Jum'ah before the fard are missed, these should be said after the obligatory (fard) Namaaz; and if the Sunnat of Fajr is missed it should better be said after sunrise but before Zuhr Namaaz.